# Jug: A Task-Based Parallelization Framework¶

Note

If you use Jug to generate results for a scientific publication, please cite

Coelho, L.P., (2017). Jug: Software for Parallel Reproducible Computation in Python. Journal of Open Research Software. 5(1), p.30.

## What is Jug?¶

Jug allows you to write code that is broken up into tasks and run different tasks on different processors.

It currently has two backends. The first uses the filesystem to communicate between processes and works correctly over NFS, so you can coordinate processes on different machines. The second is based on redis so the processes only need the capability to connect to a common redis server.

Jug also takes care of saving all the intermediate results to the backend in a way that allows them to be retrieved later.

## Examples¶

### Short Example¶

Here is a one minute example. Save the following to a file called `primes.py`

:

```
from time import sleep
from jug import TaskGenerator
@TaskGenerator
def is_prime(n):
sleep(1.)
for j in range(2, n - 1):
if (n % j) == 0:
return False
return True
@TaskGenerator
def count_primes(ps):
return sum(ps)
@TaskGenerator
def write_output(n):
output = open('output.txt', 'wt')
output.write("Found {0} primes <= 100.\n".format(n))
output.close()
primes100 = []
for n in range(2, 101):
primes100.append(is_prime(n))
n_primes = count_primes(primes100)
write_output(n_primes)
```

Of course, this is only for didactical purposes, normally you would use a
better method. Similarly, the `sleep`

function is so that it does not run too
fast.

Now type `jug status primes.py`

to get:

```
Waiting Ready Finished Running Task name
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 0 0 0 primes.count_primes
0 99 0 0 primes.is_prime
1 0 0 0 primes.write_output
...........................................................................
2 99 0 0 Total
```

This tells you that you have 99 tasks called `primes.is_prime`

ready to run,
while both other tasks are _waiting_ (i.e., they need the `primes.is_prime`

tasks to finish). So run `jug execute primes.py &`

. You can even run
multiple instances in the background (if you have multiple cores, for example).
After starting 4 instances and waiting a few seconds, you can check the status
again (with `jug status primes.py`

):

```
Waiting Ready Finished Running Task name
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 0 0 0 primes.count_primes
0 63 32 4 primes.is_prime
1 0 0 0 primes.write_output
...........................................................................
2 99 0 0 Total
```

Now you have 32 tasks finished, 4 running, and 63 still ready. Eventually, they
will all finish (including `count_primes`

and ```
write_output`) and you can
inspect the results with ``jug shell primes.py
```

. This will give you an
`ipython`

shell. The primes100 variable is available, but it is an ugly
list of jug.Task objects. To get the actual value, you call the value
function:

```
In [1]: primes100 = value(primes100)
In [2]: primes100[:10]
Out[2]: [True, True, False, True, False, True, False, False, False, True]
```

## How do I get Jug?¶

The simplest is using pip:

pip install jug

You can either get the git repository at

http://github.com/luispedro/jug

Or download the package from PyPI

## Testimonials¶

“I’ve been using jug with great success to distribute the running of a reasonably large set of parameter combinations” - Andreas Longva

## Documentation Contents¶

- Jug Tutorial
- Worked-Out Example 0
- Worked-Out Example 1
- Image Segmentation Tutorial
- Subcommands
- Status
- Early exit
- Jug Shell
- Types in Jug
- Structuring Your Tasks
- Tasklets
- Invalidating Jug Task Results (invalidate subcommand)
- Idioms
- Barriers
- Compound Tasks
- Utilities
- Map/Reduce
- Backends
- Configuration
- Bash Shell Helpers
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Why the name jug?
- How to work with multiple computers?
- Will jug work on batch cluster systems (like SGE/LFS/PBS)?
- How do I clean up locks if jug processes are killed?
- It doesn’t work with random input!
- Why does jug not check for code changes?
- Can jug handle non-pickle() objects?
- Is jug based on a background server?
- Can I pass command line arguments to a Jugfile?

- The Why of Jug
- Writing a Backend
- Magic Jug Methods
- API Documentation
- History

## What do I need to run Jug?¶

It is a Python only package. Jug is continuously tested with Python 2.6 and up (including Python 3.3 and up).

## What’s the status of the project?¶

Since version 1.0, jug should be considered stable.