## Tips & Tricks¶

These are some general guidelines for programming with jug.

## What can be a task?¶

Almost any named function can be a task.

## What should be a task?¶

The trade-off is between tasks that are too small (you have too many of them and the overhead of jug will overwhelm your process) or too big (and then you have too few tasks per processor.

As a rule of thumb, each task should take at least a few seconds, but you should have enough tasks that your processors are not idle.

Certain mechanisms in jug, for example, jug.mapreduce.map and jug.mapreduce.mapreduce allow the user to tweak the task breakup with a couple of parameters

In map for example, jug does, by default, issue a task for each element in the sequence. It rather issues one for each 4 elements. This expects tasks to not take that long so that grouping them gives you a better trade-off between the throughput and latency. You might quibble with the default, but the principle is sound and it is only a default: the setting is there to give you more control.

In the module jug.hash, jug attempts to construct a unique identifier, called a hash, for each of your tasks. For doing that, the name of the function involved invoked in the task together with the parameters that it receives are used. This makes jug easy to use but has some drawbacks:

• If your functions take long/big arguments, the hash process will potentially be costly. That’s a common situation when you are processing arrays for example, or if you are using sets/dictionaries, in which case the default handling needs to get a sorted list from the elements of the set/dictionary.
• Jug might not know how to handle the types of your arguments,
• Arguments might be equivalent, and thus the tasks should be identified in the same way, without jug knowing. As a very contrived example, suppose that a task uses an argument which is an angle and for the purpose of your program all the values are equivalent modulo 2*pi.

If you control the types of your arguments, you can add a __jug_hash__ method to your type directly. This method should return a string:

class MySpecialThing(object):
def __jug_hash__(self):
return some_string


Alternatively, you can use jug.utils.CustomHash in the case where you cannot (or rather, would not) change the types:

from jug.utils import CustomHash
def my_hash_function(x):
return some_string_based_on_x

complex = ...
value = CustomHash(complex, my_hash_function)


Now, value behaves exactly like complex, but its hash is computed by calling my_hash_function.